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关于PHP你可能不知道的-PHP的事件驱动化设计

最近在做一个需要用到异步PHP的项目, 翻阅PHP源码的时候,发现了三个没有用过的模块,sysvsem,sysvshm,sysvmsg,一番研究以后,受益非浅。
在PHP中有这么一族函数,他们是对UNIX的V IPC函数族的包装。
它们很少被人们用到,但是它们却很强大。巧妙的运用它们,可以让你事倍功半。
它们包括:

信号量(Semaphores)
共享内存(Shared Memory)
进程间通信(Inter-Process Messaging, IPC)

基于这些,我们完全有可能将PHP包装成一基于消息驱动的系统。
但是,首先,我们需要介绍几个重要的基础:
1. ftok

int ftok ( string pathname, string proj )
//ftok将一个路径名pathname和一个项目名(必须为一个字符), 转化成一个整形的用来使用系统V IPC的key

2. ticks
Ticks是从PHP 4.0.3开始才加入到PHP中的,它是一个在declare代码段中解释器每执行N条低级语句就会发生的事件。N的值是在declare中的directive部分用ticks=N来指定的。

function getStatus($arg){
 print_r connection_status();
 debug_print_backtrace();
}
reigster_tick_function("getStatus", true);
declare(ticks=1){
 for($i =1; $i<999; $i++){
 echo "hello";
 }
}
unregister_tick_function("getStatus");

这个就基本相当于:

function getStatus($arg){
 print_r connection_status();
 debug_print_backtrace();
}
reigster_tick_function("getStatus", true);
declare(ticks=1){
 for($i =1; $i<999; $i++){
 echo "hello"; getStatus(true);
 }
}
unregister_tick_function("getStatus");

消息,我现在用一个例子来说明,如何结合Ticks来实现PHP的消息通信。

$mesg_key = ftok(__FILE__, 'm');
$mesg_id = msg_get_queue($mesg_key, 0666);
function fetchMessage($mesg_id){
 if(!is_resource($mesg_id)){
 print_r("Mesg Queue is not Ready");
 }
 if(msg_receive($mesg_id, 0, $mesg_type, 1024, $mesg, false, MSG_IPC_NOWAIT)){
 print_r("Process got a new incoming MSG: $mesg ");
 }
}
register_tick_function("fetchMessage", $mesg_id);
declare(ticks=2){
 $i = 0;
 while(++$i < 100){
 if($i%5 == 0){
 msg_send($mesg_id, 1, "Hi: Now Index is :". $i);
 }
 }
}
//msg_remove_queue($mesg_id);

在这个例子中,首先将我们的PHP执行Process加入到一个由ftok生成的Key所获得的消息队列中。
然后,通过Ticks,没隔俩个语句,就去查询一次消息队列。
然后模拟了消息发送。
在浏览器访问这个脚本,结果如下:

Process got a new incoming MSG: s:19:"Hi: Now Index is :5";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :10";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :15";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :20";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :25";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :30";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :35";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :40";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :45";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :50";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :55";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :60";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :65";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :70";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :75";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :80";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :85";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :90";
Process got a new incoming MSG: s:20:"Hi: Now Index is :95";

看到这里是不是,大家已经对怎么模拟PHP为事件驱动已经有了一个概念了? 别急,我们继续完善。

2. 信号量
信号量的概念,大家应该都很熟悉。通过信号量,可以实现进程通信,竞争等。 再次就不赘述了,只是简单的列出PHP中提供的信号量函数集。

sem_acquire -- Acquire a semaphore
sem_get -- Get a semaphore id
sem_release -- Release a semaphore
sem_remove -- Remove a semaphore

具体信息,可以翻阅PHP手册。

3. 内存共享
PHP sysvshm提供了一个内存共享方案:sysvshm,它是和sysvsem,sysvmsg一个系列的,但在此处,我并没有使用它,我使用的shmop系列函数,结合TIcks

function memoryUsage(){
 printf("%s: %s<br/>", date("H:i:s", $now), memory_get_usage());
 //var_dump(debug_backtrace());
 //var_dump(__FUNCTION__);
 //debug_print_backtrace();
}
register_tick_function("memoryUsage");
declare(ticks=1){
$shm_key = ftok(__FILE__, 's');
$shm_id = shmop_open($shm_key, 'c', 0644, 100);
}
printf("Size of Shared Memory is: %s<br/>", shmop_size($shm_id));
$shm_text = shmop_read($shm_id, 0, 100);
eval($shm_text);
if(!empty($share_array)){
 var_dump($share_array);
 $share_array['id'] += 1;
}else{
 $share_array = array('id' => 1);
}
$out_put_str = "$share_array = " . var_export($share_array, true) .";";
$out_put_str = str_pad($out_put_str, 100, " ", STR_PAD_RIGHT);
shmop_write($shm_id, $out_put_str, 0);
?>

运行这个例子,不断刷新,我们可以看到index在递增。
单单使用这个shmop就能完成一下,PHP脚本之间共享数据的功能:以及,比如缓存,计数等等。
未完待续

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  1. Zhanghui Ming
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    这个需要哪些扩展?还有php版本最小是多少?

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  25. young
    young November 5, 2012

    ticks 指令在 PHP 5.3.0 中是过时指令,将会从 PHP 6.0.0 移除。

  26. 坐坐吧
    坐坐吧 March 27, 2012

    小错误:文章开头“事半功倍”,呵呵

  27. comeon
    comeon January 5, 2012

    这个可以用来发送邮件吗?如果不能,如果想批量发送邮件,怎么样实现呢?请教!

  28. bobo
    bobo December 29, 2010

    我的项目中,用sysvshm实现了本地缓存数据共享,其实主要目的就是避开memcache的网络连接那一步,

  29. leeon
    leeon December 21, 2010

    ipc:信号量,共享内存,消息队列。

  30. phpzxh
    phpzxh December 20, 2010

    Call to undefined function msg_stat_queue()
    报这个函数未定义。
    是不是在windos下用不了?

  31. tz
    tz July 20, 2010

    文中所说的消息队列是linux系统本身的那个消息队列吧

  32. jackie
    jackie June 28, 2010

    怎么没有下文了?我最近在学习多线程。。。感觉有点晕。。。
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  33. […] 传统的B/S结构的应用程序,都是采用”客户端拉”结束来实现客户端和服务器端的数据交换。 本文将通过结合Ticks(可以参看我的另外一篇文章:关于PHP你可能不知道的-PHP的事件驱动化设计),来实现一个服务器推的PHP聊天室简单构想。 […]

  34. Rodin
    Rodin December 2, 2008

    hi
    SYSVSHM, SYSVSEM, SYSVMSG就是
    shm_* sem_* , msg_* 系列函数是吧?
    另,php_event.dll这个是什么东西?有研究过么?

    • 雪候鸟
      雪候鸟 December 2, 2008

      @Rodin, 恩, php_event.dll是 Pecl中event包的win32版本。
      要是使用这个那就更方便了,呵呵。

  35. Rodin
    Rodin November 21, 2008

    哇,好东西唉~~从来没看过这些呢~
    拜一拜博主~~学习SHM和SEM中……

  36. Bun Wong
    Bun Wong November 17, 2008

    为什么我用了 register_tick_function 设置回调并且 declare(ticks = 1) 后,页面就提示 apache 错误了?救命。。。

  37. ssword
    ssword August 31, 2008

    巧妙的运用它们,可以让你事倍功半。
    —————————————
    为什么要事倍功半丫 ,囧

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