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最近要给Yahoo的同事们做一个关于PHP和Apache处理请求的内部机制的讲座,刚好写了些关于Opcodes的文字,就发上来了,这个文章基于 Sara Golemon大师的《Understanding OPcode》

   echo "Hello World";
   $a = 1 + 1;
   echo $a;


1.Scanning(Lexing) ,将PHP代码转换为语言片段(Tokens)
2.Parsing, 将Tokens转换成简单而有意义的表达式
3.Compilation, 将表达式编译成Opocdes
4.Execution, 顺次执行Opcodes,每次一条,从而实现PHP脚本的功能。

那什么是Lexing? 学过编译原理的同学都应该对编译原理中的词法分析步骤有所了解,Lex就是一个词法分析的依据表。 Zend/zend_language_scanner.c会根据Zend/zend_language_scanner.l(Lex文件),来输入的 PHP代码进行词法分析,从而得到一个一个的“词”,PHP4.2开始提供了一个函数叫token_get_all,这个函数就可以讲一段PHP代码 Scanning成Tokens;

    [0] => Array
           [0] => 367
           [1] =>  Array
            [0] => 316
            [1] => echo
    [2] => Array
            [0] => 370
            [1] =>
    [3] => Array
            [0] => 315
            [1] => "Hello World"
    [4] => ;
    [5] => Array
            [0] => 370
            [1] =>
    [6] => =
    [7] => Array
            [0] => 370
            [1] =>
    [8] => Array
            [0] => 305
            [1] => 1
    [9] => Array
            [0] => 370
            [1] =>
    [10] => +
    [11] => Array
            [0] => 370
            [1] =>
    [12] => Array
            [0] => 305
            [1] => 1
    [13] => ;
    [14] => Array
            [0] => 370
            [1] =>
    [15] => Array
            [0] => 316
            [1] => echo
    [16] => Array
            [0] => 370
            [1] =>
    [17] => ;

分析这个返回结果我们可以发现,源码中的字符串,字符,空格,都会原样返回。每个源代码中的字符,都会出现在相应的顺序处。而,其他的比如标签,操作符,语句,都会被转换成一个包含俩部分的Array: Token ID (也就是在Zend内部的改Token的对应码,比如,T_ECHO,T_STRING),和源码中的原来的内容。
接下来,就是Parsing阶段了,Parsing首先会丢弃Tokens Array中的多于的空格,然后将剩余的Tokens转换成一个一个的简单的表达式

1.echo a constant string
2.add two numbers together the result of the prior expression to a variable
4.echo a variable

然后就改Compilation阶段了,它会把Tokens编译成一个个op_array, 每个op_arrayd包含如下5个部分:

1.Opcode数字的标识,指明了每个op_array的操作类型,比如add , echo
2.结果       存放Opcode结果
3.操作数1  给Opcode的操作数
5.扩展值   1个整形用来区别被重载的操作符


* ZEND_ECHO     'Hello World'
* ZEND_ADD       ~0 1 1
* ZEND_ASSIGN  !0 ~0
* ZEND_ECHO     !0



IS_TMP_VAR, 顾名思义,这个是一个临时变量,保存一些op_array的结果,以便接下来的op_array使用,这种的操作数的u保存着一个指向变量表的一个句柄(整数),这种操作数一般用~开头,比如~0,表示变量表的0号未知的临时变量
IS_VAR 这种就是我们一般意义上的变量了,他们以$开头表示
IS_CV 表示ZE2.1/PHP5.1以后的编译器使用的一种cache机制,这种变量保存着被它引用的变量的地址,当一个变量第一次被引用的时候,就会被CV起来,以后对这个变量的引用就不需要再次去查找active符号表了,CV变量以!开头表示。


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  3. feistiny
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    为什么不用 var_dump 输出 tokens, print_r 出来的空格都没了, 不太好理解

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  35. wan
    wan August 18, 2009

    好文章,已认真阅读,请问为什么每次生成的 opcodes 的最后总是会有这么一条指令: * ZEND_HANDLE_EXCEPTION , 请指点。谢谢

  36. Anonymous
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  37. 熊林
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  39. xiaoj
    xiaoj October 5, 2008

    PHP Opcode Dumper,这个工具可以查看到编译后的opcodes

  40. 雪候鸟
    雪候鸟 September 11, 2008

    to chen, 可以通过vld扩展获取.

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  42. chen
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  43. […] 你所编写的脚本,最终都会被转换成C代码来执行。 这个和我在以前文章中(深入理解PHP原理之Opcodes)介绍的opcode并不冲突, […]

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